Debugging C++/Native code in Android Studio doesn’t work with older Android SDK API version

General problem

I have an Android Native application that targets two different API versions: 23 (Marshmallow) and 28 (Pie). For the API 28, I have no problem debugging a hello world application when it enters the C++ code: the debugger attaches itself and stops the execution at my breakpoints. For the API 23 however, the debugger attaches itself but never stops at the breakpoints. This behavior for both APIs is consistent across emulators and real devices.

Versions

  • Windows 10
  • Android Studio 4.1.1
  • Gradle 6.5
  • NDK 21.1.6352462
  • CMake 3.10.2.4988404

Emulators comparison

API 23

  • Galaxy Nexus 4.65 720×1280
  • Android 6.0 x86_64 (Marshmallow)

API 28

  • Galaxy Nexus 4.65 720×1280
  • Android 9.0 x86_64 (Pie)

The only difference here is really the operating system. Everything else including memory allocation seems to be exactly the same.

Code

The code is the same in both cases. It pretty much follows the default JNI template provided by Android. I’ll post everything in any case.

Root build.gradle:

// Top-level build file where you can add configuration options common to all sub-projects/modules.
buildscript {
    repositories {
        google()
        jcenter()
    }
    dependencies {
        classpath "com.android.tools.build:gradle:4.1.1"

        // NOTE: Do not place your application dependencies here; they belong
        // in the individual module build.gradle files
    }
}

allprojects {
    repositories {
        google()
        jcenter()
    }
}

task clean(type: Delete) {
    delete rootProject.buildDir
}

Application build.gradle:

plugins {
    id 'com.android.application'
}

android {
    compileSdkVersion 30
    buildToolsVersion "30.0.2"

    defaultConfig {
        applicationId "com.example.myapplication"
        minSdkVersion 23
        targetSdkVersion 30
        versionCode 1
        versionName "1.0"

        testInstrumentationRunner "androidx.test.runner.AndroidJUnitRunner"
        externalNativeBuild {
            cmake {
                cppFlags "-std=c++11"
            }
        }
    }

    buildTypes {
        release {
            minifyEnabled false
            proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android-optimize.txt'), 'proguard-rules.pro'
        }
    }
    externalNativeBuild {
        cmake {
            path "src/main/cpp/CMakeLists.txt"
            version "3.10.2"
        }
    }
    compileOptions {
        sourceCompatibility JavaVersion.VERSION_1_8
        targetCompatibility JavaVersion.VERSION_1_8
    }
}

dependencies {

    implementation 'androidx.appcompat:appcompat:1.2.0'
    implementation 'com.google.android.material:material:1.2.1'
    implementation 'androidx.constraintlayout:constraintlayout:2.0.4'
    testImplementation 'junit:junit:4.+'
    androidTestImplementation 'androidx.test.ext:junit:1.1.2'
    androidTestImplementation 'androidx.test.espresso:espresso-core:3.3.0'
}

AndroidManifest.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    package="com.example.myapplication">

    <application
        android:allowBackup="true"
        android:icon="@mipmap/ic_launcher"
        android:label="@string/app_name"
        android:roundIcon="@mipmap/ic_launcher_round"
        android:supportsRtl="true"
        android:theme="@style/Theme.MyApplication">
        <activity android:name=".MainActivity">
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" />

                <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" />
            </intent-filter>
        </activity>
    </application>

</manifest>

MainActivity.java:

package com.example.myapplication;

import androidx.appcompat.app.AppCompatActivity;

import android.os.Bundle;
import android.widget.TextView;

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

    // Used to load the 'native-lib' library on application startup.
    static {
        System.loadLibrary("native-lib");
    }

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);

        // Example of a call to a native method
        TextView tv = findViewById(R.id.sample_text);
        tv.setText(stringFromJNI());
    }

    /**
     * A native method that is implemented by the 'native-lib' native library,
     * which is packaged with this application.
     */
    public native String stringFromJNI();
}

native-lib.cpp:

#include <jni.h>
#include <string>

extern "C" JNIEXPORT jstring JNICALL
Java_com_example_myapplication_MainActivity_stringFromJNI(
        JNIEnv* env,
        jobject /* this */) {
    std::string hello = "Hello";
    std::string world = " World!";
    return env->NewStringUTF((hello + world).c_str());
}

CMakeList.txt:

# For more information about using CMake with Android Studio, read the
# documentation: https://d.android.com/studio/projects/add-native-code.html

# Sets the minimum version of CMake required to build the native library.

cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.10.2)

# Declares and names the project.

project("myapplication")

# Creates and names a library, sets it as either STATIC
# or SHARED, and provides the relative paths to its source code.
# You can define multiple libraries, and CMake builds them for you.
# Gradle automatically packages shared libraries with your APK.

add_library( # Sets the name of the library.
             native-lib

             # Sets the library as a shared library.
             SHARED

             # Provides a relative path to your source file(s).
             native-lib.cpp )

# Searches for a specified prebuilt library and stores the path as a
# variable. Because CMake includes system libraries in the search path by
# default, you only need to specify the name of the public NDK library
# you want to add. CMake verifies that the library exists before
# completing its build.

find_library( # Sets the name of the path variable.
              log-lib

              # Specifies the name of the NDK library that
              # you want CMake to locate.
              log )

# Specifies libraries CMake should link to your target library. You
# can link multiple libraries, such as libraries you define in this
# build script, prebuilt third-party libraries, or system libraries.

target_link_libraries( # Specifies the target library.
                       native-lib

                       # Links the target library to the log library
                       # included in the NDK.
                       ${log-lib} )

If anyone can spare the help, it would be most welcome!

Source: Windows Questions C++

LEAVE A COMMENT