Why does std::make_shared cause linker errors when using non-inline static const members? [duplicate]

  c++, c++17, inline, make-shared

I’m using C++17 and stumbled on a linker error with this kind of code

#include <memory>

struct SomeType
    static const int MIN = 0;
    static const int MAX = 0;

struct Range
    Range(int min=0, int max=0) : min(min), max(max) {}

    int min, max;

int main()
    auto range = std::make_shared<Range>(
    return 0;

On linux using gcc 11.2 this causes linker errors but MSVC builds it without problems (Visual Studio 2019 Version 16.9.2).

undefined reference to `SomeType::MIN'
undefined reference to `SomeType::MAX'

but if I add inline before static const int MIN = 0; and static const int MAX = 0; then it works just fine.

Why does adding the inline fix the linking issue? Why is it a link time issue and not a compile time issue?

Source: Windows Questions C++